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Publisher: Routledge , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title How do we re-theorize tourism? About the Author : Daniel C.

Review : 'By reconceptualizing landscape in terms of place and meaning, this volume helps create a foundation for a new paradigm in tourist research, to replace that once provided by John Urry's The Tourist Gaze , with its foundation in an idea of landscape as scenery.

Olwig, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden "About this title" may belong to another edition of this title. Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. New Hardcover Quantity Available: 1. Seller Rating:. Published by Taylor and Francis , Aldershot Metro-Roland, Daniel C. Knudsen, Charles E.

Published by Routledge New Hardcover Quantity Available: 2. Chiron Media Wallingford, United Kingdom.

Landscape, Tourism, and Meaning (New Directions in Tourism Analysis)

New Hardcover Quantity Available: Book Depository hard to find London, United Kingdom. Published by Ashgate Pub Co Revaluation Books Exeter, United Kingdom. Soper and Charles E. Greer, Daniel C. Knudsen, Michelle M.

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Metro-roland, Daniel C. Knudsen Editor , Michelle M. Metro-roland Editor , Charles E. Additional side-benefits b. Communication: information on processes in the BR; increased acceptance and importance, trust-building. A major promoter of the civic foundation was the biosphere reserve management.

The biosphere reserve has the overarching goal of harmonising biodiversity conservation and regional human activities. In addition, several local actors are affected by land use abandonment due to their different main interests. Local farmers are losing income, and landowners potentially cannot recover their running costs taxes. Local residents stated a high commitment to and interest in preserving the typical landscape because it significantly contributes to regional identity. The interview analysis shows that all actors are aware of the problem of gradual change to the landscape.

Different actors report that they have been observing this transformation over a period of three decades and that it began to be more pressing with the shift from the socialist planned economy to a market economy in eastern Germany. As a result of that shift, many farmers abandoned their businesses and agricultural plots started to run wild.

From the perspective of the nature conservationists, the most important and urgent problem is the loss of areas with high nature value especially the threat to protected species. Interviewed nature conservationists emphasise that in this case, the aim is not land use restriction, but, on the contrary, the preservation of land use. The farmers consider it their responsibility to take care of their property. However, even if they emphasise their needs for economically rentable land use and for cost recovery, they also state that they do not want to become mere caretakers of the landscape without the production of food and fodder; instead they want to continue as cultivating farmers.

They fear that in the future, the problematic sites might be managed by only one distant, non-regional enterprise.

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  • However, the farmers are not unanimous in their opinions: one farmer who advocates organic farming regards structural transformation in rural areas as the main problem. From his point of view, small farmers are increasingly replaced by large agriculture holdings that have no interest in soil and nature or in landscape conservation.

    New Directions in Tourism Analysis

    The protection and conservation of landscape scenery is perceived as a central issue, with the landscape and the experience of nature, it provides, being crucial. Interviews reveal a high potential for conflicts between nature conservation and land use interests.

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    • The management of the biosphere reserve is largely perceived as a threat responsible for land use restrictions and inadequate water management. Thus, a multitude of prejudices and a pessimistic attitude towards the biosphere reserve have been reported.

      For example, one interviewee TE illustrated his opinion by recalling the paradox that a ferry operator reported to him: some fauna species have nearly died out since the biosphere reserve was established in the region. The representative of the biosphere confirms that he does indeed face this negative atmosphere. In this context, it is also documented that land use restrictions and current water management led to perceptions of paternalism.

      Another perspective relates to the farmers. Nature conservationists and some small farmers criticise the advancing structural change, which entails a loss of small-scale farmers and an increasing concentration of land owned by only a few large agricultural companies. These changes are resulting in a lack of responsibility for the environment. In contrast, interviews with farmers and nature conservationists consistently reveal expectations that tourism should advocate for and financially support the maintenance of the cultural landscape. However, actors had different ideas regarding the development of the cultural landscape.


      Interviewees attribute these differences to different actor demands, which also change over time and generations. While representatives from nature conservation emphasise the maintenance and preservation of biotopes and species with high nature value, the tourism expert notes that tourism providers and nature conservationists differ in their notions of and perspectives on the cultural landscape.

      From the conservation point of view, the preservation of the open landscape with the typical wet meadows and the associated typical species composition is essential. While tourism representatives, BR representatives and conservationists have different ideas for the development or preservation of the landscape, the interview with the representative of the farmers does not reveal any specific conception of the landscape. Rather, the focus is on the management of the land and water resources as well as their consequent economic uses.

      This focus is also the basis for a concept of sustainability that emphasises the preservation of land use. Against this background, keeping the landscape open and preserving arable land through adequate water management are mentioned as important goals. At the time of the investigation, some forms of collaborative innovation had already been initiated, aimed at preserving the typical Spreewald cultural landscape.

      However, these were limited to bilateral and isolated cooperations, and they had a rather random and fragmented character thermal utilisation of biomass, tourism co-products, tree sponsorships, wet meadow shares, etc. From the point of view of the BR, these efforts will not be sufficient to protect the specific wet meadows permanently.

      Therefore, an integrated development concept is advocated, which combines the different sub-solutions and strives for an inter-sectoral and strategic collaboration among tourism, agriculture, small landowners, and nature conservation. With regard to the question of opportunities for cooperation and the willingness to participate in innovation processes, the interviews reveal the following:. The actors consider direct cooperation between agriculture and tourism as a spin-off enterprise to be rather difficult to achieve because the agricultural structure in the Spreewald is no longer characterised by small agricultural enterprises TE and is increasingly dominated by large agricultural companies.

      These large farms, which at the same time represent a low level of actor diversity in the agricultural sector, are perceived to lack identity and solidarity with the region. From the perspective of some other actors, their pure focus on profit maximisation neglects issues of nature conservation and land conservation F, NC. For a while, there was some discussion of introducing a tourist tax for landscape conservation.

      However, it turned out that such a general levy would not be accepted by the tourism industry. As a result, co-products are not perceived as adequate TP. Trust is noted as an essential prerequisite for cooperation. Above all, the BR is perceived by many actors as threatening and patronising. Here, reference is repeatedly made to the process by which the Spreewald biosphere reserve was designated in the s.

      Similar frustrating experiences are recalled with regard to a major regional nature conservation project, which was carried out between and LO.


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      According to some interviewees, another barrier not only to cooperation but also to the willingness to try new things is seen in the mentality of the actors, who as a result of their socialisation in the GDR have very little entrepreneurial spirit. New ideas and projects are often initiated by people from outside. Table 2 shows that time, manpower, and facilitation skills are important required resources to coordinate and enable collaboration.

      Although central tasks of biosphere reserve management are to organise processes that help to preserve and develop the cultural landscape and to harmonise nature conservation with socio-economic demands, the BR management employee of the Spreewald region states that the BR does not have enough financial and human resources to establish and maintain laborious collaborative processes BR.